NASA Juno Jupiter Probe Reaches Halfway Point -- Science Mission Set For Test Run

Anya Wassenberg

Today -- July 31 -- NASA's Juno Jupiter probe will reach the farther point in its orbit of the giant gas planet. As it swings back towards Jupiter, the spacecraft's instrumentation will begin to send back historic data that should prove to revolutionize our understanding of the solar system and beyond.

According to a media release, at 3:41 Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) or 19:41 GMT, NASA's Juno spacecraft will be about 5 million miles or 8.1 million kilometers from Jupiter. The farthest point of Juno's orbit is known as the "apojove." At that point, Jupiter's strong gravitational field will begin to pull it back towards the planet and the eagerly awaited data will begin its transmission. On August 27, Juno will finish its first orbit of the giant gas planet, finishing 2,600 miles or 4,200 kilometers from the tops of its cloud cover, which will be its closest encounter with Jupiter.

As reported in Space Magazine, Juno's science mission will consist of another 30 loops around Jupiter in full observational mode. The Juno mission is scheduled to end in February 2018 as the spacecraft deliberately plunges directly into Jupiter's turbulent atmosphere, where high temperatures, a super strong magnetic field and other forces will eventually results in its destruction.

So, how does a solar power system operate 365 million miles or 588 million kilometers away from the sun?

Juno is outfitted with about 19,000 photovoltaic cells, which will produce about 400 watts of electricity. It doesn't sound like much, but Juno is also equipped with super energy efficient instrumentation and computer systems. The solar panels are placed on the three arms that radiate from the Juno spacecraft, each of them 30 feet or 9 meters long. At that distance, Juno's solar panels only receive 3.4 to 4.1 percent of the solar intensity that would be registered on earth. In comparison, here on earth, the same set of solar panels would produce 14 kilowatts of electricity.

Juno's data on Jupiter's deep atmosphere, mass, and magnetic fields, not to mention the close up images that will be sent back to earth, will represent a huge leap forward for NASA and other organizations in the understanding of planetary science.

[Image via NASA/JPL-Caltech]