Physicists from Syracuse University have published groundbreaking research revealing why matter is so widespread in the universe and have finally verified that there is a markedly different decaying process between matter and antimatter, especially with elementary particles that hold charmed quarks.
As Phys.org reports, while matter and antimatter symmetry have been spotted in the past within particles that have held either beauty quarks or strange quarks, Professor Sheldon Stone has noted that this new study marks the first time that this exact matter and antimatter decaying process has been observed.
In their new study, Dr. Stone and the Syracuse University High-Energy Physics (HEP) group have managed to accurately measure, with an astounding degree of certainty of 99.999 percent, how both D0 mesons and anti-D0 mesons have a substantially different transformation process which turns these mesons into much more solid byproducts.
As Dr. Stone explained, “There have been many attempts to measure matter-antimatter asymmetry, but, until now, no one has succeeded. It’s a milestone in antimatter research.”
This exciting new research also suggested that there may be new physics taking place here well outside of the realm of the Standard Model.
However, Dr. Stone noted that until he and his team discover just what these new physics may be, “We need to await theoretical attempts to explain the observation in less esoteric means.”
Physicists reveal why matter dominates universe https://t.co/1h8mtt2Gvs
— Phys.org (@physorg_com) March 21, 2019
It is important to remember that for each particle of matter that is observed, there is also a reciprocal antiparticle. While these particles may at first glance appear to be perfectly identical with each other, there is nevertheless a major difference as there is an opposite charge.
When these matter and antimatter particles come together, they both destroy each other in a flurry of profound amounts of energy, which is not unlike what occurred during the Big Bang, and that is precisely why we don’t see any antimatter around us right now. As Dr. Stone further noted, in theory, if there was an equal amount of matter and antimatter available at the start of the universe, only energy would have existed.
“If the same amount of matter and antimatter exploded into existence at the birth of the Universe, there should have been nothing left behind but pure energy. Obviously, that didn’t happen.”
To learn why there is so much matter in the universe, the HEP chose to examine the same particle, only, in this case, it was two different versions of the particle. The first version of this particle held a charmed quark and an anti-up quark, while the second contained an anti-charm quark and an up quark.
Physicists then analyzed data taken from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and watched to see how many times these different particles decayed and then turned into completely new byproducts.
As Dr. Stone discovered, “The ratio of the two possible outcomes should have been identical for both sets of particles, but we found that the ratios differed by about a tenth of a percent. This proves that charmed matter and antimatter particles are not totally interchangeable.”
While physicists have known for a long time now that the behavior of matter and antimatter is quite different, this was the first time that particles containing charmed quarks have been examined and determined to be completely asymmetrical.
The new research, which sheds light on why there is so much matter in the universe, is available in pre-print from the CERN document server.