People and animals are developing and winning the fight against bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal infections since the evolution of medicine. However, recent studies show that the anatomical defense against harmful pathogens in the human body, animals and even in plants are becoming insufficient, making the host vulnerable to the ailments from these microbes. The World Health Organization (WHO) is expecting the resistance of bacteria, parasites, virus, and fungi within the human body with or without antibiotic intervention. Scientists are now in focus in finding new approaches to the antibiotic crisis, or simple ailments would be impossible to treat in the future.
It is not only man, animals and plants that are building up resistance to harmful pathogens, bacteria, fungi, and other life-threatening pathogens; microbes are developing their resistance too. According to Physics.org, when micro-organisms start to resist the natural antibodies of the human body, antibiotic intervention applies to fight off these pathogens. Microbes will also wise up and develop their own defenses against antibiotics.
Antibiotic resistance evolution takes place through natural selection by random mutation. The microbial strain can be spread by plasmid exchange which is the equivalent of bacterial sex. When mutated bacterium possesses several resistance genes, a superbug is produced.Transformation methods aid the introduction of an artificial gene that would kill the antibiotic-resistant microbe if it lacks the gene injected to it. Superbugs have drug resistance capabilities against antifungals, antibiotics, antivirals, antimalarials, and anthelmintics.
Antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a threat to humanity as it makes it difficult for medicine to treat common diseases. Medical treatment will not take effect, and the drug resistant pathogens will remain in the body and tend to infect other hosts in the process.
The state of antibiotic resistant microbes is a global threat as extended sickness causes disability and death, declares the UN study. Medical procedures will always put a patient at risk with antibiotic pathogens prevalent in the environment. Operations like organ transplants, caesarean sections, diabetes, chemotherapy, and other major surgeries are prone to such risks.
To better understand antibiotic resistance bacteria in man and animals, a study is being conducted by Benjamin Koch, an assistant research professor in the Center for Ecosystem Science and Society (ECOSS). The study is about tracking bacterial movement among people, animals, and the environment thereby enabling the team on how to approach the toughening of these microbes against antibiotics. Results of his studies will be published in the August 2017 issue of “Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment” with data basing on the archives of the US Department of Agriculture and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Another investigation published in the Biophysical Journal last June 20, explains a new process on how to measure the longevity of an antibiotic-resistant microbe from medical treatment. The time it takes to eliminate an antibiotic-resistant pathogen population will allow scientists and researchers to ultimately treat antimicrobial strains on its way to becoming superbugs. Senior Author Nathalie Balaban of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is leading the study.
According to the World Health Organization, the presence of antibiotic resistance is prevalent in any country and is warning of an antibiotic crisis. The global threat is affecting anyone and anywhere causing premature death in any age, color, and gender. At present, 700,000 deaths every year are alarming causes of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and other microbes. Statistics show that uncontrolled antibiotic-resistant strains will cause the planet ten million deaths annually by 2050.
The World Health Organization has a list of antibiotic resistant ailments. These illnesses cost more resources like Klebsiella Pneumoniae, a common lethal intestinal infection, E.Coli, Gonorrhoea, MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus), Colistin, Tuberculosis, Malaria, HIV, and Influenza.
A breakthrough in the treatment of antibiotic resistant bacteria is now in the development stage at the Tel Aviv University led by Professor Udi Qimron of the Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology. His team consists of Dr. Moran Goren, Dr. Ido Yosef, Rea Globus, and Shahar Molshanski.
The recent discovery is about the delivery of DNA into antibiotic resistance pathogens allowing control over the microbes. The research enhances the effects of bacteriophages, the bacterial virus that infects bacteria. These bacterial viri are the main tools to inject DNA into the resistant strains disabling their deadly bacterial activity. A bacteriophage can cater multi-antibiotic resistant microbes, opening the expedition of potential medication against the resistant pathogens.
Another clinical approach in the treatment against antibiotic-resistant pathogens is the identification of an amino acid in the recently discovered teixobactin antibiotic. The drug is so lethal against the elimination of the MRSA bacteria that cause health problems to humans. The innovation is a potential avenue to produce antibiotics against drug-resistant microbial infections.
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The pressing need to develop antibiotics to control and eliminate antibiotic resistant microbes is in a frantic research against time and environmental conditions the world is in. The World Health Organization, with its member countries, held a general assembly last year with topics on microbial control resistant to antibiotics. The aim is to expedite Worldwide commitments and push forward efforts in the fight against antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
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