Socrates and Daodejing “The most important thing isn’t living, but living well” (Reeve, 69). Within the context of the Daodejing, a Chinese philosophical text, Socrates not only lives well, but dies well. Accused of impiety, Socrates must defend himself in court before the people of Athens. His peers fear him on account of his wisdom. However, preceding and during his trial, Socrates presents his humble nature, continuously denies the wisdom with which he is attributed. Unconvinced by Socrates’ claims of innocence and ignorance, the people decide to convict the intellectual, assigning him the death penalty. The non-contentious way in which Socrates handles this matter and the calmness with which he faces death support the Daoist ideas of non-contention and the acceptance of ignorance. Through his humbleness in life, skillful handling of his opponents, and fearlessness of death, Socrates’ both lives and dies in accordance with the edicts of the Daodejing. The humility of Socrates both in his conversations with Euthyphro and before the court aligns with the Daoist idea that one should places himself at a position below others. Preceding his trial, Socrates converses with his friend, Euthyphro, about the meaning of piety. Rather than declaring his thoughts on the definition, Socrates charges Euthyphro to “teach [him] too, that [he] may become wiser” (Reeve, 14). Socrates implies that he has something to learn from his friend and, in terms of wisdom, places himself below Euthyphro. The Daodejing refers to this maneuver as “placing [oneself] in the lower position” (Ivanhoe, 69). As “if you want to be above the people you must proclaim that you are below them,” (Ivanhoe, 69) Socrates presents himself as a man above by suggesting that he is less wise than his companion and asking for counsel. He continues to devalue his own wisdom when presenting his case in court. When recounting an oracle from God declaring him the wisest man of all, Socrates argues that, by this oracle, “he meant that human wisdom is worth little or nothing” (Reeve, 35). Eluding the glory afforded by God’s nomination, Socrates essentially declares himself to be worthless. Rather than accepting this role of superiority, Socrates flips the understood hierarchy of intellect, placing the wisest man at the bottom. By not “daring to put oneself first in the world” (Ivanhoe, 70), Socrates abides by the Daodejing’s edict of modesty. Despite his modest attempts to profess his innocence, Socrates earns the death penalty. While Socrates knows that the verdict is incorrect, he acts in accordance to the Daoist idea of non-contention and passively accepts his fate. Presenting himself in a dignified manner, Socrates accepts his penalty without contest, rather employing prophetic guilt to fight his battle. To the men who have condemned him, Socrates projects that “as soon as [he] is dead vengeance will come upon [them], and it will be much harsher, by Zeus, than the vengeance [they] take in killing [him]” (Reeve, 57). While Socrates does not implicitly confront his enemies, this prophecy of a troublesome future depicts “the power of using others” (Ivanhoe, 71). Rather than fighting his sentence through warlike means, Socrates uses the guilt of his opponents’ consciences as well as their reverence for God against them. Deemed “the Virtue of noncontention” by Daoist teachers, Socrates, through his verbal trickery, reflects the idea that those good at fighting are never warlike” (Ivanhoe, 71). At the end of his fight, Socrates rejects the typical urge to evade death, rather facing his mortality with a Daoist fearlessness of death. Before the court pronounces his ruling, Socrates mulls over the prospect of death. Fearing death. Socrates relays, “is nothing other than thinking one knows what one doesn’t know” (Reeve, 44). With this assertion, the accused man expresses that those fearful of death claim know for certain that death should be feared and thus, claim to be as wise as God. Socrates words on death echo the Daoist sentiment that “To know that one does not know is best” (Ivanhoe, 74). By not assuming to know whether or not death warrants fear, Socrates acknowledges the virtue of accepting ignorance. The convicted Socrates also demonstrates the Daoist teaching that “People look upon death lightly because those above are obsessed with their own lives” (Ivanhoe, 78). When Crito visits his friend in prison, he remarks that Socrates faces the misfortune of death “so easily and calmly” (Reeve, 62). This description of Socrates’ state of being assumes that he makes light of his situation. Socrates’ casual view of death paints him as a man in a lower position, more worthy in the eyes of a Daoist than someone obsessed with life. In accordance with the ideas presented in the Daodejing, Socrates dies a fulfilled man. The consistency of his behavior before, during, and after his trial suggest that Socrates is a man devoted to a strict moral code. While friends and onlookers regard Socrates’ reaction to be confounding, in the context of Daoist teachings, his behavior appears to be both rational and exemplary. Through a Daoist lens, Socrates proves himself, in the trials of life, to be a virtuous man.

Tom Hiddleston And Mary Berry Throw Down Over Bolognese Faux Pas [Recipe]

You are not alone if you photograph your culinary masterpieces for Instagram or Facebook. Celebrities do it too, and there is one meal that has turned Great Britain upside down. It’s all about bolognese, a rich meat sauce that is the indulgence of pasta lovers everywhere. Now, everyone has their own twist on the Italian recipe, but there are some basic things that make the sauce bolognese. Recently, two British celebs, actor Tom Hiddleston and British food writer Mary Berry who is best known as the host of the Great British Bake-Off, shared their Bolognese recipes, and Hiddleston came out ahead.

Now, this food and wine enthusiasm is not just limited to British celebrities, as Americans, such as singer and actor John Legend and his wife Chrissy Teigen, are huge foodies, reports the Inquisitr. Last year, John Legend organized a world tour that included platinum-level travel, behind-the-scenes touring, and some of the best food and wine in Europe and North America.

A huge thank you to @gucci. I am so grateful to have your partnership and support. Photo by @nathanielgoldberg for @gq

A post shared by Tom Hiddleston (@twhiddleston) on

But with Tom Hiddleston and Mary Berry (think the U.K.’s Martha Stewart) both sharing their bolognese recipes, and Hiddleston’s being embraced while Berry’s was questioned, the internet and media went wild, according to Vanity Fair. Tom Hiddleston’s bolognese recipe is more traditional, it’s fairly easy, and it’s supposedly delicious, while Mary Berry’s recipe is, well, odd.


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Tom goes with beef, bacon, veg, red wine, and “tinned tomatoes” and tosses everything in a Dutch oven on the stove top, and then finishes it off in the oven. It’s traditional, it’s Italian, and it lets the roasting, low and slow, do the work. So what is wrong with Mary Berry’s Bolognese? Well, she uses red currant jam, white wine, and heavy cream. Oh, the horror!

Spaghetti Bolognese???? #yummy Absolutes Lieblingsessen aus meiner Kindheit???? Welches Gericht verbindet ihr mit eurer Kindheit?☺ #memories Ich wollte schon lange Mal eine fitnesstaugliche Spaghetti Bolognese Variante hochladen – jetzt ist es online! Wie immer findet ihr das leckere Rezept natürlich auf meinem Blog WWW.FITMITPASCAL.DE ???? Direktlink in der Bio @fitmitpascal???? Ich habe dafür die Protein-Pasta von @lidlde benutzt – super lecker sag ich euch???? #lidllohntsich Viel Spaß beim Ausprobieren des Rezepts und einen schönen Abend???? #fitmitpascal #rezept #online #kochen #lidlde #abnehmen PS: Abnehmen ohne Verzicht auf Kohlenhydrate????? Mit dem @3PhasenProgramm kein Problem???? Für weitere Infos schreib mir unverbindlich eine Mail an info@fitmitpascal.de???? #3PPArmy

A post shared by Pascal | Fitness & Lifestyle✨ (@fitmitpascal) on

Tom Hiddleston made his bolognese for Taffy Brodesser-Akner of GQ, and she was impressed (though most women would gladly embrace Hiddleston making them a pasta dinner).

“It’s amazing Bolognese, the most incredible Bolognese you’ve ever had. You think you’ve had great Bolognese? Try Tom Hiddleston’s Bolognese before you continue to talk about great Bologneses you’ve had in your life.”

According to Brodesser-Akner, it was incredible. But poor Mary Berry — one follower said after reading Berry’s recipe, she was “appalled.”

Now perhaps Mary Berry’s bolognese might not be traditional, but she certainly knows her way around a pie crust, so maybe take a leap of faith and try something new, says the Telegraph. Berry was on BBC2, making her bolognese, when she told viewers to throw in “red or white wine, whatever you have on hand. I really prefer white.” Then, instead of the traditional milk, she poured in double cream (heavy cream or whipping cream in the U.S.).

All over the U.K., people lost it, but one guy took to Twitter to suggest that maybe they should allow Mary Berry to lead them in their own direction, to heck with Italy.

“It was a Brexit Bolognese. We don’t need the Italians to tell us how to cook any more. We’ve taken back control of pasta dishes.

Others suggested that Berry might be drinking gin, they supposed, while others said they were shocked, appalled, and gasped.

What do you think about the Tom Hiddleston/Mary Berry Bolognese scandal? Are you #TeamHiddleston or #TeamMaryBerry?

[Featured Image by Jeff Spicer/Getty Images]

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